Weber's Christmas presents to his parents, when he was thirteen years old, were two historical essays entitled "About the course of German history, with special reference to the positions of the Emperor and the Pope", and "About the Roman Imperial period from Constantine to the migration of nations".
Theoretical perspectives[ edit ] Symbolic anthropology and phenomenology[ edit ] Symbolic anthropology and some versions of phenomenology argue that all humans require reassurance that the world is safe and ordered place — that is, they have a need for ontological security.
The inability of science to offer psychological and emotional comfort explains the presence and influence of non-scientific knowledge in human lives, even in rational world.
Functionalism[ edit ] Unlike symbolic anthropology and phenomenologyfunctionalism points to the benefits for social organization which non-scientific belief systems provide and which scientific knowledge fails to deliver. Belief systems are seen as encouraging social order and social stability in ways that rationally based knowledge cannot.
From this perspective, the existence of non-rational accounts of reality can be explained by the benefits they offer to society.
According to functionalists, "religion serves several purposes, like providing answers to spiritual mysteries, offering emotional comfort, and creating a place for social interaction and social control. It provides social support and social networking, offering a place to meet others who hold similar values and a place to seek help spiritual and material in times of need.
We cannot explain forms of knowledge in terms of the beneficial psychological or societal effects that an outside observer may see them as producing. We have to look at the point of view of those who believe in them. People do not believe in God, practice magic, or think that witches cause misfortune because they think they are providing themselves with psychological reassurance, or to achieve greater cohesion for their social groups.
They do so because they think their beliefs are correct — that they tell them the truth about the way the world is.
Nineteenth-century rationalist writers, reflecting the evolutionist spirits of their times, tended to explain the lack of rationality and the dominance of false beliefs in pre-modern worlds in terms of the deficient mental equipment of their inhabitants.
Such people were seen as possessing pre-logical, or non-rational, mentality. Rationalists see the history of modern societies as the rise of scientific knowledge and the subsequent decline of non-rational belief. Some of these beliefs, such as magic and witchcrafthad disappeared, while others, such as religion, had become marginalized.
This rationalist perspective has led to secularization theories of various kinds. Sociological classifications of religious movements One common typology among sociologists, religious groups are classified as ecclesiasdenominationssectsor cults now more commonly referred to in scholarship as new religious movements.
Note that sociologists give these words precise definitions which differ from how they are commonly used. For example, Charles Y. Glock is best known for his five-dimensional scheme of the nature of religious commitment.
His list consist of the following variables: Secularization and Civil religion In relation to the processes of rationalization associated with the development of modernityit was predicted in the works of many classical sociologists that religion would decline.
In the United States, in particular, church attendance has remained relatively stable in the past 40 years. In Africa, the emergence of Christianity has occurred at a high rate.Max Weber was born April 21, Max Weber was born in Erfurt, Prussia (present-day Germany).
Weber’s father was greatly involved in public life and so his home was constantly immersed in both politics and academia.
Weber and his brother thrived in this intellectual atmosphere. In , he. Excerpt from Term Paper: Sociological Theory The sociology of Max Weber (Question No. 1) Max Weber's sociology involved two important concepts: Protestant ethic and schwenkreis.comishing a causal connection between this two concepts, Weber presented in his discourse, "Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism," how the Protestant ethic was the catalyst that propelled Western societies.
Max Weber was a 19th-century German sociologist and one of the founders of modern sociology.
He wrote The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism in Born in Germany in , Max Weber Born: Apr 21, Sociology (in the sense in which this highly ambiguous word is used here) is a science which attempts the interpretive understanding of social action in order thereby to arrive at a causal explanation of its course and effects.
Max Weber () was one of the founding fathers of Sociology. Weber saw both structural and action approaches as necessary to developing a full understanding of society and social change. Feb 20, · Max Weber explained that modern capitalism was born not because of new technology or new financial instruments.
What started it all off was religion.