Orientalism an overview

June 9, by Medievalists.

Orientalism an overview

It first became common with its current sense in Great Britainduring the s and was used with a negative connotation. Its precise meaning continues to be debated by scholars.

Some writers, such as Edward Saiduse the term more broadly to describe any system of domination and subordination organised with an imperial center and a periphery. Political power grows from conquering land; however, cultural and economic aspects flourish through sea and trade routes.

A distinction about empires is "that although political empires were built mostly by expansion overland, economic and cultural influences spread at least as much by sea". European empires in Asia and Africa "have come to be seen as the classic forms of imperialism: The two main regions are the core and the periphery.

The core consists of high areas of income and profit; the periphery is on the opposing side of the spectrum consisting of areas of low income and profit.

These critical theories of Geo-politics have led to increased discussion of the meaning and impact of imperialism on the modern post-colonial world. The Russian leader Lenin suggested that "imperialism was the highest form of capitalism, claiming that imperialism developed after colonialism, and was distinguished from colonialism by monopoly capitalism".

Geopolitics now focuses on states becoming major economic players in the market; some states today are viewed as empires due to their political and economic authority over other nations.

Entrance of the Russian troops in Tiflis, 26 Novemberby Franz RoubaudThe term "imperialism" is often conflated with " colonialism "; however, many scholars have argued that each have their own distinct definition.

Imperialism and colonialism have been used in order to describe one's perceived superiority, domination and influence upon a person or group of people. Robert Young writes that while imperialism operates from the center, is a state policy and is developed for ideological as well as financial reasons, colonialism is simply the development for settlement or commercial intentions.

However, colonialism still includes invasion. Particularly, Edward Said distinguishes the difference between imperialism and colonialism by stating; "imperialism involved 'the practice, the theory and the attitudes of a dominating metropolitan center ruling a distant territory', while colonialism refers to the 'implanting of settlements on a distant territory.

Colonialism is seen to be the architect deciding how to start dominating areas and then imperialism can be seen as creating the idea behind conquest cooperating with colonialism. Colonialism is when the imperial nation begins a conquest over an area and then eventually is able to rule over the areas the previous nation had controlled.

Colonialism's core meaning is the exploitation of the valuable assets and supplies of the nation that was conquered and the conquering nation then gaining the benefits from the spoils of the war.

Colonialism is the builder and preserver of the colonial possessions in an area by a population coming from a foreign region. Thus, most will eventually establish a separate nationality or remain under complete control of their mother colony. A portrayal of New Imperialism and its effects on China.

Stephen Howewhile generally hostile to empires,[ citation needed ] has summarized the beneficial effects of the main empires: They provided stability, security, and legal order for their subjects. They constrained, and at their best, tried to transcend, the potentially savage ethnic or religious antagonisms among the peoples.

And the aristocracies which ruled most of them were often far more liberal, humane, and cosmopolitan than their supposedly ever more democratic successors.

In ancient Chinatianxia denoted the lands, space, and area divinely appointed to the Emperor by universal and well-defined principles of order. The center of this land was directly apportioned to the Imperial court, forming the center of a world view that centered on the Imperial court and went concentrically outward to major and minor officials and then the common citizens, tributary statesand finally ending with the fringe " barbarians ".

Tianxia's idea of hierarchy gave Chinese a privileged position and was justified through the promise of order and peace. Hobson identifies this justification on general grounds as: Friedrich Ratzel believed that in order for a state to survive, imperialism was needed.

Halford Mackinder felt that Great Britain needed to be one of the greatest imperialists and therefore justified imperialism. Under this doctrine, the French politician Jules Ferry could declare in that "Superior races have a right, because they have a duty.

They have the duty to civilize the inferior races.

Orientalism an overview

The Royal Geographical Society of London and other geographical societies in Europe had great influence and were able to fund travelers who would come back with tales of their discoveries.

The principles of imperialism are often generalizable to the policies and practices of the British Empire "during the last generation, and proceeds rather by diagnosis than by historical description".

The country of Australia serves as a case study in relation to British settlement and colonial rule of the continent in the eighteenth century, that was arguably premised on terra nullius, as its settlers considered it unused by its original inhabitants.

Orientalism and imaginative geography[ edit ] Imperial control, territorial and culturalis justified through discourses about the imperialists' understanding of different spaces. Cartographic propaganda One of the main tools used by imperialists was cartography.

Cartography is "the art, science and technology of making maps" [33] but this definition is problematic.In the final chapter of the book, Said offers an overview of Orientalism in the present day.

With the rise of U.S. political influence, the image and symbol of Islam and the Arab pervades American popular culture. ARAB CIVILIZATION. Introduction to the Arab World. The Arab homeland stretches some 5, miles— nearly twice the distance between New York and San Francisco—from the Atlantic coast of northern Africa in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to Central Africa in the south.

What are Nonfiction Text Features? Imagine you have just met a new person. You don't know a whole lot about them yet, but you can make some predictions based on their facial features. Oil.

That is what the modern Middle Eastern geopolitics have usually been about. Given the vast energy resources that form the backbone of western economies, influence and involvement in the Middle East has been of paramount importance for the former and current imperial and super powers, including France, Britain, USA and the former Soviet Union.

Literary Theory "Literary theory" is the body of ideas and methods we use in the practical reading of literature. By literary theory we refer not to the meaning of a work of literature but to the theories that reveal what literature can mean.

Orientalism is a term used by art historians and literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects in Middle Eastern, South Asian, and East Asian schwenkreis.com depictions are usually done by writers, designers, and artists from the West. In particular, Orientalist painting, depicting more specifically "the Middle East", was one of the many specialisms of 19th.

Imperialism - Wikipedia