Nov 23, She still remembers the blue and purple fabric of that dress, but other memories from those years are more traumatic. Now 90 years old, Lee says she feels like a sincere apology from Japanese authorities for the wartime exploitation of so-called "comfort women" is no nearer now than when she returned home more than 70 years ago. Japan says the claims have been settled by past agreements and apologies, and that the continued controversy threatens relations between the two countries.
Background[ edit ] Soh was born in South Korea. She graduated from Sogang University in Seoul and earned her master's degree and then Ph. D from the University of Hawaii in She is a sociocultural anthropologist who specializes in issues of women, gender, sexuality.
Movement for Redress", which appeared in Asian Survey. Soh wrote about how the sexist Korean patriarchal culture was a critical underlying factor in the criminal collaboration by Koreans in the Japanese comfort women program.
This combined with the sense of shame about sex work to prevent the comfort women program from being investigated after the war. In the s and later, the comfort women issue was not considered important by the government of South Korea because of the elitist tendency to ignore the plight of the poor; most of the coerced Koreans were from poor families.
She asserts that Chong Dae Hyup's narrative Korean comfort women of wwii essay the Japanese military coercively taking young Korean women away from "loving parents" is baseless, and she accuses the activist group of strategic misrepresentations that have prevented deeper understanding of the comfort women issue.
She insists that it is incorrect to portray the comfort women as sex slaves and the system as a war crime. In her view, the burden is on Korean society to repudiate victimization, admit its complicity and accept that the comfort women system was not criminal.
However, she concedes that current Korean nationalism is so strong that it is highly unlikely Korean society will come to that realization anytime soon.
To prevent this from occurring, the Japanese military asked businessmen to recruit prostitutes and operate brothels. The Japanese military sent notices to brothel operators ordering them to only recruit willing prostitutes and not to recruit women against their will.
The Japanese operators followed the order and only recruited willing women. But the Korean operators recruited both willing and unwilling women.
If Korean brothel operators had followed the Japanese military's order, there would not have been any comfort women issue. When Japan offered compensation through Asian Women's Fund inSoh asserts that Chong Dae Hyup threatened Korean women not to accept Japan's apology and compensation so that it could continue its anti-Japanese propaganda campaign.
Soh describes how 61 former Korean comfort women defied this threat and accepted compensation.
Those 61 women were vilified as traitors. Chong Dae Hyup published their names and addresses in newspapers as dirty prostitutes, so they had to live the rest of their lives in disgrace. Furthermore, the Koreans turn their eyes away from their own collaboration.
She asserts that the Korean comfort station operators recruited Korean comfort women, some of whom were sold to the operators by indebted parents.
But after the war Korean society stigmatized these women, exacerbating their tragedy. Soh criticizes the Korean Council for traumatizing those comfort women who accepted monetary compensation from the Japan-based Asian Women's Fund. Kingston describes how the book places responsibility on Korean society for the Korean comfort women problem, even though Soh admits that the Japanese government established and managed the program.
Kingston observes that Soh is much more critical of liberal Korean redress activists than she is of conservative Japanese nationalist apologists who can use the book's arguments for their own purposes. Caprioa professor of history at Rikkyo University in Tokyo, wrote that Soh's book emphasizes the complexity of the comfort women issue.
The book describes how there are vastly different experiences of comfort women depending on how they were recruited and where they were stationed. Soh works toward a more comprehensive definition of comfort women, rather than limiting the definition to a single characterization.
Caprio criticizes Soh for opening the door to Japanese nationalists who make "irresponsible claims" to minimize the comfort women issue. Caprio says that Soh's book supports some of the arguments used by nationalists, and that it does not spend enough effort on refutation of the nationalist position.
Totani notes that, in her "diverse and textured" research on the comfort women issue, Soh describes how "Korean nationalist advocacy" has served to damp discussion of the "masculinist sex culture" in Korea, a culture that contributed to the exploitation of comfort women.
Soh argues for a deep look into the societal structures that allow violence against women. Totani observes that Soh's book examines four competing ideologies which are critical to the understanding of the modern comfort women issue.
These ideologies are the "fascistic paternalism" of wartime Japan, the continuing "masculinist sexism" of Japan and Korea, the "feminist humanitarianism" movement which is split over the redress issue, and "ethnic nationalism" which turns a blind eye to historical accuracy in favor of emotional devotion to one's country.Essay on Korean Comfort Women Words 11 Pages Comfort women, or ianfu as they are called in Korean, are females who were forced sex slaves for the Japanese Imperial Army (Chunghee).
The comfort women issue has been a controversial topic since December , where Kim Hak-sun and several other Korean women came forward in a lawsuit against the Japanese government demanding reparation as former “comfort women.” Undoubtedly, there is an abundance of literature concerning the issue from both .
May 18, · An estimated , women and girls across Asia were abducted and forced to serve in so-called “comfort stations” by the Japanese military during World War II. Estimates of the number of "comfort women" range from 80, to , Continuing Tensions Over "Comfort Women" The operation of the "comfort stations" during World War II has been one that the Japanese government has been reluctant to admit.
Comfort women were women and girls forced into sexual slavery by the Imperial Japanese Army in occupied territories before and during World War II. The name "comfort women" is a translation of the Japanese ianfu (慰安婦), a euphemism for "prostitute(s)". A. History of Comfort Women during World War II As the full-scale war was advanced, Japan felt the necessity of the military sexual slaves, and, ultimately, invented the comfort system for the purposes 5 of (1) protecting the local women.