Fagan Pennsylvania State University Introduction Augustus is arguably the single most important figure in Roman history.
Bolshevik revolutionaries Leon TrotskyLev Kamenev and Grigory Zinoviev Between andthree very large Moscow Trials of former senior Communist Party leaders were held, in which they were accused of conspiring with fascist and capitalist powers to assassinate Stalin and other Soviet leaders, dismember the Soviet Union and restore capitalism.
These trials were highly publicized and extensively covered by the outside world, which was mesmerized by the spectacle of Lenin's closest associates confessing to most outrageous crimes and begging for death sentences.
The first trial was of 16 members of the so-called "Trotskyite-Kamenevite-Zinovievite-Leftist-Counter-Revolutionary Bloc",[ citation needed ] held in August at which the chief defendants were Grigory Zinoviev and Lev Kamenevtwo of the most prominent former party leaders.
Among other accusations, they were incriminated with the assassination of Kirov and plotting to kill Stalin. Thirteen of the defendants were eventually executed by shooting.
The rest received sentences in labor camps where they soon died. There was also a secret trial before a military tribunal of a group of Red Army commanders, including Mikhail Tukhachevsky, in June Prosecutor General Andrey Vyshinsky centrereading the indictment against Karl Radek during the 2nd Moscow Trial Some Western observers who attended the trials said that they were fair and that the guilt of the accused had been established.
They based this assessment on the confessions of the accused, which were freely given in open court, without any apparent evidence that they had been extracted by torture or drugging. The British lawyer and Member of Parliament D. Prittfor example, wrote: It is now known that the confessions were given only after great psychological pressure and torture had been applied to the defendants.
From the accounts of former OGPU officer Alexander Orlov and others, the methods used to extract the confessions are known: For example, Kamenev's teenage son was arrested and charged with terrorism.
After months of such interrogation, the defendants were driven to despair and exhaustion.
Zinoviev and Kamenev demanded, as a condition for "confessing", a direct guarantee from the Politburo that their lives and that of their families and followers would be spared.
This offer was accepted, but when they were taken to the alleged Politburo meeting, only Stalin, Kliment Voroshilovand Yezhov were present. Stalin claimed that they were the "commission" authorized by the Politburo and gave assurances that death sentences would not be carried out.
After the trial, Stalin not only broke his promise to spare the defendants, he had most of their relatives arrested and shot.
The commission was headed by the noted American philosopher and educator John Dewey. Although the hearings were obviously conducted with a view to proving Trotsky's innocence, they brought to light evidence which established that some of the specific charges made at the trials could not be true.
The Dewey Commission established that no such flight had taken place. The Dewey Commission later published its findings in a page book titled Not Guilty.
Its conclusions asserted the innocence of all those condemned in the Moscow Trials. In its summary, the commission wrote: That the conduct of the Moscow Trials was such as to convince any unprejudiced person that no attempt was made to ascertain the truth.The Reign of Terror, led by Robespierre, was a period of the French Revolution during which many people were ruthlessly executed by the new government.
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The service is available 24/7 Please contact our custom service if you have any questions concerning our service. An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers. DIR Atlas AUGUSTUS (31 B.C. - 14 A.D.) [Additional entry on this emperor's life is available in DIR Archives].
Garrett G. Fagan Pennsylvania State University. Introduction Augustus is arguably the single most important figure in Roman history. Samuel Chase was born in Somerset County, Maryland, 17 April His parents, Thomas Chase and Matilda Walker had met and married in Somerset County.
More Essay Examples on French Revolution Rubric. The revolutionaries wanted a fair government that could allow all social classes to enjoy the same rights without making the huge distinction with aristocrats. Thousands of men and women were guillotined according to judgments of this court during the 'Reign of Terror'.
Justice was all denied as the judges were already directed to give their decisions hastily without going deep into the proceedings of the case.