Medieval Inquisition While the witch trials only really began in the 15th century, with the start of the early modern periodmany of their causes[ citation needed ] had been developing during the previous centuries, with the prosecution of heresy by the Medieval Inquisition during the late twelfth and the thirteenth centuries, and during the Late Medieval periodduring which the idea of witchcraft or sorcery gradually changed and adapted. The inquisition had the office of protecting Christians against the "internal" threat of heresy as opposed to "external" military threats such as those of the Vikingsthe Mongolsand the Saracens or Turks. Witches by Hans Baldung Grien Woodcut, During the High Middle Agesa number of heretical Christian groups, such as the Cathars and the Knights Templar had been accused of performing such anti-Christian activities as Satanism, sodomy and malevolent sorcery in France.
This era in Western Europe is referred to as the early modern European period and includes the Protestant Reformationthe European wars of religionthe Age of Discovery and the beginning of European colonialismthe rise of strong centralized governments, the beginnings of recognizable nation-states that are the direct antecedents of today's states, the Age of Enlightenmentand from the associated scientific advances the first phase of the Industrial Revolution.
The emergence of cultural and political dominance of the Western world during this period is known as the Great Divergence. At the end of the early modern period, the British and Russian empires had emerged as world powers from the multipolar contest of colonial empireswhile the three great Asian empires of the early modern period, Ottoman TurkeyMughal India and Qing Chinaall entered a period of stagnation or decline.
Renaissance and "early modern"[ edit ] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. September Learn how and when to remove this template message The expression "early modern" is at times incorrectly used as a substitute for the term Renaissance.
However, "Renaissance" Early modern europe properly used in relation to a diverse series of cultural developments that occurred over several hundred years in many different parts of Europe — especially central and northern Italy — and it spans the transition from late medieval civilization to the opening of the early modern period.
In the visual arts and architecture, the term 'early modern' is not a common designation as the Renaissance period is clearly distinct from what came later. Only in the study of literature is the early modern period a standard designation.
European music of the period is generally divided between Renaissance and Baroque. Similarly, philosophy is divided between Renaissance philosophy and the Enlightenment. In other fields, there is far more continuity through the period such as warfare and science.
Gunpowder and Firearms[ edit ] When gunpowder was introduced to Europe, it was immediately used almost exclusively in weapons and explosives for warfare. Though it was invented in China, gunpowder arrived in Europe already formulated for military use and European countries took advantage of it and were the first to create the classic firearms.
Despite its name, for much of its history the Empire did not include Rome within its borders. The Renaissance  was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe.
The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historic erabut since the changes of the Renaissance were not uniform across Europe, this is a general use of the term.
As a cultural movement, it encompassed a rebellion of learning based on classical sources, the development of linear perspective in painting, and gradual but widespread educational reform.
Notable individuals[ edit ] Gutenberg reviewing a press proof a colored engraving created probably in the 19th century Johannes Gutenberg is credited as the first European to use movable type printingaroundand as the global inventor of the mechanical printing press.
Nicolaus Copernicus formulated a comprehensive heliocentric cosmologywhich displaced the Earth from the center of the universe.
Another notable individual was Machiavellian Italian political philosopher, considered a founder of modern political science.
Machiavelli is most famous for a short political treatise, The Princea work of realist political theory. Among the notable royalty of the time, Charles the Boldknown as Charles the Bold or Rash to his enemies,  he was the last Valois Duke of Burgundyand his early death was a pivotal, if under-recognized, moment in European history.
Charles has often been regarded as the last representative of the feudal spirit — a man who possessed no other quality than a blind bravery. Upon his death, Charles left an unmarried nineteen-year-old daughter, Mary of Burgundyas his heir. Her marriage would have enormous implications for the political balance of Europe.
Inthe territory of the Duchy of Burgundy was annexed by France.Online shopping from a great selection at Books Store. Early Modern Europe is a survey of European history from the 16th to the 18th centuries.
Its three parts, one for each of the centuries the book covers, are each a collection of three essays by period historians/5(6).
One of the most hotly debated issues in paleoanthropology (the study of human origins) focuses on the origins of modern humans, Homo sapiens. 9,10,3,6,13,15,14 Roughly , years ago, the Old World was occupied by a morphologically diverse group of hominids.
In Africa and the Middle East there was Homo sapiens; in Asia, Homo erectus; and in Europe, Homo neanderthalensis. History of publishing, an account of the selection, preparation, and marketing of printed matter from its origins in ancient times to the schwenkreis.com activity has grown from small beginnings into a vast and complex industry responsible for the dissemination of all manner of cultural material; its impact upon civilization is impossible to calculate.
Sep 28, · History of Europe, history of European peoples and cultures from prehistoric times to the present.
Europe is a more ambiguous term than most geographic expressions. Its etymology is doubtful, as is the physical extent of the area it designates. UW TACOMA DIVISION OF SOCIAL AND HISTORICAL STDY HISTORY (TACOMA) Detailed course offerings (Time Schedule) are available for. Autumn Quarter ; Winter Quarter ; T HIST Introduction to History Methods (5) I&S Introduces students to historians' methods for researching and writing, including Chicago style, with a focus on formulating, researching, and writing a history .