While those shouting the disadvantages of the energy industry have some valid points, keep in mind the numerous advantages the industry brings to the Lone Star State. Economic Impact Perhaps the biggest advantage to the oil and gas industry in Texas is the economic impact it has on state funding. What does that funding mean exactly? It means your Texas schools, roads, and emergency services received crucial funds.
What about the fact that the "simple" organisms are buried in the lower levels and the more "complicated" ones are buried in the higher levels? Doesn't this fact support the notion that simple organisms evolved into more and more complex organisms over time, with the more complex organisms buried and fossilized above the earlier and simpler life forms?
Certainly this seems like a very logical assumption. But, things just aren't that easy. There are a number of potential problems with this interpretation of the fossil record. For example, it is interesting to note that some general kinds of fossilized creatures are very generally found in the same relative vertical orientation, with respect to each other in the fossil record, that they would have naturally been found in during life.
Single celled organisms make their first appearance in the lowest layers followed by multicelled ocean bottom-dwelling creatures like sponges and worms etc. Higher up come creatures like bony fishes, then land plants and animals, then birds and larger land animals.
Of course, this is a very general pattern and does not explain why certain creatures that lived on the bottoms of Dharwar drilling society, like trilobites, make their first appearance in the Cambrian Ma while other creatures that live on ocean bottoms, like crabs and lobsters, Dharwar drilling society appear until the beginning of the Cretaceous Ma.
If the geologic column truly represents a series of closely spaced catastrophic burial events instead of long ages of time, how can this feature be explained?
Certainly this seems like a difficult and rather mysterious problem for those, like myself, who might think to question the long age notion of the fossil record. At least a partial explanation might be found in the fairly recently discovered fact that at least some nested hierarchical patterns to the distribution of different populations both living and within the fossil record seem to be strongly related to ecological and population-size factors.
This pattern arises when species that appear on few islands occur only on the islands with the most species, while only the most widespread species are found on the islands with few species Wright et al. The nested subset pattern arises because species differ in their distributions across space.
Some species use a wider range of resources or persist across a wider range of habitats than others Brown, ; Brown et al. Generally, species that use a wide range of resources or tolerate a variety of abiotic conditions can establish more populations in more places than comparable species with relatively narrow niches Brown, ; Cook and Quinn, Differences in the ability of species to distribute themselves across space have distinct consequences for the structure of communities.
In Dr. Raul Esperante teamed up with Dr. Leonard Brand and others to investigate fossil whales within the Pisco Formation of Peru's Atacama Desert. The Drilling and Completions technical discipline covers topics including well planning and wellbore design through drilling equipment, systems . Dharwar Drilling Society (DDS) The objective of the society is to motivate farmers to take the risk of drilling and to increase area under irrigation.
Sites that encompass a greater area tend to have more species Rosenzweig, This is because large areas include a subset of species not found elsewhere. Therefore, the nested subset pattern of species distribution in space is thought to reflect the gradient in abundance among species Gaston, ; Leitner and Rosenzweig, ; Maurer, This hypothesis is at least plausible given the author's conclusion that, "Species identities and their relative abundances are non-random properties of communities that persist over long periods of ecological time and across geographic space.
This is consistent with species abundance contributing heavily to evolutionary patterns. For example, coelacanth fish exist in the fossil record for what are thought to have been million years.
Then they suddenly disappear from the fossil record some 80 million years ago only to reappear alive an well swimming around in oceans today. Clearly, some types of coelacanths lived in habitats that did not lend themselves to fossilization while others did.
Some habitats are clearly more susceptible to the preservation of fossils. If those specific habitats are not occupied by a particular kind of creature, it may not be preserved in the fossil record even though it is still alive and well in some other habitat. Consider also that the crayfish was once thought to have evolved from lobster-like ancestors around Ma.
This was until very modern-looking crayfish were subsequently found in sedimentary rocks dating up to Ma Link. This brings up the interesting problem of the "first appearance" of all kinds of fossils being pushed farther and farther back in supposed geologic time - often dramatically so.
They describe the discovery in the January issue of the journal Paleontology. Of course, horseshoe crabs are not true crabs. They more closely resemble spiders and scorpions in their body plan.
However, it is interesting that these creatures were thought to exist no farther back than million years Carboniferous period before this discovery pushed them back another Ma to Ma.
Both the Carboniferous and the Jurassic fossil discoveries indicate the "ancient" horseshoe crabs greatly resembled their modern-day counterparts.
And, amazingly enough, analysis of the recent finds also indicates the ocean creatures haven't changed much over the eons. It's a good plan," Rudkin told LiveScience. Older and older specimens of various creatures are being found quite commonly and almost always their modern-day counterparts, if they exist, are essentially no different.
How odd from an evolutionary perspective to find example after example of morphologic stasis over hundreds of millions of years of evolutionary time. Other examples of fossils being dating much older than previously thought include: Australopithecus ape thought to be ancestral to humans dated 4 million years older than previously thought Link.
Platypus dating 40 million years older than previously thought to Ma pushing the first appearance of mammals back to the time of the dinosaurs Link. A block of amber fossil resin encasing an extinct, stingless bee Proplebeia dominicana carrying a clump of orchid pollen on its back shows that these "masterpieces" among flowers appeared sometime between 76 million and 84 million years ago, much earlier than previously believed.Welcome to Top Maritime Colleges in India , List, Best Ranking Best Merchant Navy Institutes, Marine Engineering Colleges, Nautical Science Schools in India section.
The Drilling and Completions technical discipline covers topics including well planning and wellbore design through drilling equipment, systems . Dharwad is the district headquarters of Dharwad district in the state of Karnataka, India.
Dharwar was incorporated into the territory of the British East India Company's Bombay Presidency. During the early 19th century, when the British were expanding their domains.
12 Dharwar Prime Drilling Society IIM Bangalore ACCOUNTING - Winter Drilling Lab. Topics: Chloride, Dharwar Drilling Society(DDS) As part of Dharwar Drilling Society’s objective to motivate more farmers to mortgage their land and take the risk of drilling to stuck water for irrigation and hence make them self- reliant.
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02/18/ 09/30/ Posted by dgeophysics. Despite its controversial environmental aspects, the oil and gas industry remains a driving force in Texas. While those .