Breaking the stalemate on the western front essay

Share this article Share The soaring cost will only add to the pressure felt by military commanders already grappling with growing budgetary constraints and procurement over spends. Mr Gates has requested extra funds for Libya operations, but has been rebuffed by the White House. Concussions from the strikes, in clusters of a few minutes apart, washed over Tripoli from its outskirts.

Breaking the stalemate on the western front essay

We see Michael Psellus in the 11th Century surprisingly contrasting "the ancient and lesser Rome, and the later, more powerful city" [! It is now hard to grasp Constantinople as a greater city than Rome, but there would have been little in Rome's favor in Psellus' day.

Even so, in the midst of Istanbul, it mostly still remains standing, in some places even restored, its breaches merely allowing modern streets to pass [ note ].

Breaking the stalemate on the western front essay

That's not the Roman Empire! That's some horrible medieval thing! As Roman historians liked to use archaic place names, and so frequently called Constantinople "Byzantium," their use of "Byzantine," Byzantinus, was simply and logically for residents of the Capital.

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The Suda [a tenth century encyclopedia] calls [the historian] Malchus [of Philadelphia] a "Byzantine," which usually meant a native of Constantinople but in this case must have meant a longtime resident. German, envoys, in an embassy from Otto Iwith their own pretentions as successors of Rome, arrived at the Court of Nicephorus Phocas intheir represenation of Otto as the "Emperor of the Romans" Imperator Romanorum was hotly disputed.

Otto was not a successor of Constantine. A letter then arrived from the Pope addressed to the "emperor of the Greeks. Evidently the Pope had not heard of "Byzantium" as the name of the Empire [ note ]. While "Byzantium" is indeed used merely as a term of convience and custom by most historians, there is the awkward question of when "Rome" ends and "Byzantium" begins.

If Rome "fell" inthen clearly "Byzantium" should begin there; but this boundary is rarely used.

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Since Constantinople itself must be explained, Byzantine histories commonly begin with Constantine, often inwhen Constantine had defeated Lincinius and acquired the East. This is what one finds in A. The flip side of this would be simply to end the "Roman Empire" with Constantine. This is not common, but I have seen Garrett G.

With thirty-six lectures on Emperors, Fagan abruptly stops at Constantine, with a handoff to Kenneth W. Harl's lectures, "The World of Byzantium" [], to continue the story.

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Fagan says that, to him, Constantine was the first Mediaeval, or the first Byzantine, Emperor; and so his job is done. The drawback of this approach is that the last century and a half of the Western Empire falls between the stools, not to mention the extraordinary and tragic Julianwho ruled the whole Empire.

A Byzantinist is not going to pay much attention to Ricimeras Harl, who doesn't even mention his name, indeed does not. And Harl has the annoying habit of saying "Stilichio" for Stilicho and "Visiogoths" for "Visigoths," forms that I do not see attested in any print source.Decadence, Rome and Romania, the Emperors Who Weren't, and Other Reflections on Roman History What do you think of the state of Romania?

Does it stand as from the beginning, or has it been diminished? Doctrina Jacobi nuper baptizati. According to an internal DoD memo, the U.S. had already spent $ million in Libya by mid-May - a running cost of $60 million a month since the bombing began in March.

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The Psychology of Security. I just posted a long essay (pdf available here) on my website, exploring how psychology can help explain the difference between the feeling of security and the reality of security..

We make security trade-offs, large and small, every day. We make them when we decide to lock our doors in the morning, when we .

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